Difference Between DNA and RNA for Student

Difference Between DNA and Rna complete information

DNA(Deoxyribonucleic acid)

DNA is Deoxyribonucleic acid is a part of genetic material present in every cell of the body.

Genetic material:- Genetic material is a substance that stores biological information in a coded form, transfer it to the next generation and causes its expression in the offspring. Sutton and Boveri proposed that genetic information is between generations by chromosomes. Genetic material divided into two types.

1:- Proteins

2:- DNA

Protein is the macromolecule and has no mechanism for duplicating itself, so it doesn’t qualify to act as genetic material.

DNA as Genetic material(Difference Between DNA and RNA)

DNA is a part of genetic material which stores genetic information, develops mutation. It duplicates its genetic information.


DNA first discovered by Swiss chemist Friedrich Miescher. DNA is a long polymer of deoxyribonucleotides. Several nucleotides or a pair of nucleotides present in it and they defined the length of DNA.

Structure of DNA:-

Structure of DNA proposed by James Watson and Francis Crick. The double-helix model of DNA based on –

*Chargaff rule.

*X-ray diffraction pattern of DNA.

Chargaff Rule:-

Erwin Chargaff formulated important information about DNA structure. These are purines and pyrimidines are always equal in amount (A+T = G+C).

A very famous model known as the Watson and the Crick model describes the detailed structure of DNA.


Watson and Crick Model:-

Watson and Crick along with Wilkins got a Nobel prize for the double-helical model of DNA.

DNA made by two long polynucleotide chain.  Each deoxyribonucleotide is formed by cross-linking of

1:-Deoxyribose sugar

2-: Nitrogenous base

3-:Phosphoric acid

Four types of nitrogenous base present in DNA.







Purine is a large size nitrogen-containing molecule. It contains 4 nitrogen-containing molecules. It contains 4 nitrogen atom at 1,3,7 and 9 position. Pyrimidine is small-sized nitrogen-containing biomolecules. It contains two nitrogen atom at 1 and 3 positions. Base pairing is the pairing formed in the DNA double helix between purine of one strand and pyrimidine of the second strand. The two strands of DNA held together by hydrogen bonds between their bases. Two hydrogen bond occur between adenine and thymine. Three hydrogen bond are present between guanine and cytosine. G≡C is stronger than A=T bonds.


RNA(ribonucleic acid)Difference Between DNA and RNA

RNA means Ribonucleic acid which is a single chain of poly ribonucleotide that functions as a carrier of coded genetic information from DNA to the cytoplasm for taking part in:-

  • Protein synthesis
  • Enzyme synthesis

Due to folding or coiling of the single-strand RNA may appear partially double-stranded. In the RNA strand adenine attach with uracil in place of thiamine, therefore it is called RNA, which means A=U, G≡C.

RNA helps in protein synthesis. (Difference Between DNA and RNA)

Types of RNA:-

  • mRNA
  • tRNA
  • rRNA

RNA is genomic in some viruses like TMV, HIV influenza virus etc. It double-strand in wound tumour virus, rice dwarf virus and mesophase.


mRNA is a long RNA that constitutes 2-5% of the total RNA content of the cell. It brings instruction from DNA for the formation of a particular type of polypeptide. It also called informational or genetic RNA.

Another important function of m-RNA is, it identifies the essential amino acid from diet and sends the messages to t- RNA for taking these essential amino acids to rRNA.


After identification of essential amino acid by m-RNA, transfer these amino acids to ribosomes for the synthesis of polypeptide synthesis as per codons of mRNA.


rRNA means ribosomal RNA which convert amino acid to protein.

Replication of DNA and RNA:- DNA can make DNA by the process of replication. By replication, DNA makes a photocopy of itself. DNA can form RNA by the process of transcription and RNA from DNA by the process of reverse transcription. It is a reversible process. The translation made protein from RNA. It is an irreversible process.

What is R.T. PCR:-(Difference Between DNA and RNA)

Any disease can recognise by its DNA we call the process DNA fingerprinting. But in the case of covid -19 deceased is absent but RNA is present in it. To identify this virus, RNA converts to DNA by the process of reverse transcription we call it RT PCR or reverses transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In this method, the sample taken from the human body, in this sample RNA virus is present in covid – 19. RNA converted to DNA by an enzyme known as reverse transcriptase by the process of RTPCR. This process takes 2to 3 days to identify the virus, which is too late. A very quick test is a rapid antibody test that identifies coronavirus.


When a human is affected by the coronavirus, his body makes antibodies rapidly to fight against this virus. so In this test, a blood sample of humans is taken and put into the kit. A chemical present in this kit recognises that the human body makes antibody rapidly, so it is clear that the human is affected by the coronavirus. It takes only one to two hour for identifying the virus. The demerits of this test are, the human body makes antibody after two to three days of infection. Another is a human after recovery from corona his body also make antibody so if we test after recovery the kit shows that the human is covid-19 positive. So this rapid antibody test is for symptoms patient, like cold, cough, and fever etc. In this way DNA and RNA help in detecting the coronavirus.


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