Photosynthesis Is A Process Used By Plants to making food. we will discuss all aspects of photosynthesis
importance of photosynthesis
All animals including humans depend on the plant for their food. photosynthesis is a process by which The plant can make their food by a physiochemical reaction with the presence of light energy. Although all green plants are autotrophs that they can make their food by themselves. Photosynthesis is important due to two reasons, firstly it is the primary source of food for both plants and animals, animals are heterotrophs they can not prepare their food. So they depend on the plant for food and another thing is for getting oxygen. Green plants when preparing their food release oxygen as byproducts which is the most important thing for life.
What is the photosynthesis process?
Robert Hill in 1937 develops an experiment that a green plants used co2 and water in the presence of sunlight to release a glucose molecule and 6 water molecules and 6 oxygen molecules.
what is the photosynthesis equation?
6co2 + 12H2O ——- C6 H12 O6+6H2O+ 6O2
Where does photosynthesis take place?
Mainly photosynthesis takes place in leaves. Leaves are ‘kitchen of the tree. In green leaves, stomata or some there are some small holes. By this time interchange of co2 also water vapour takes place. next Plastids are present in every green plant. Based on the type of pigments Plastic can be classified into the chloroplast, chromoplast, and leucoplast. plus The chloroplast contains chlorophyll pigment which is responsible for trapping light energy for photosynthesis.
chloroplast in photosynthesis
The majority of the chloroplast of the green plants are in the mesophyll cells of the leaves. The space limited by the inner membrane of the chloroplast is the stroma. A number of organised flattened membranous sacs called the thylakoids are present in the stroma. Thylakoids arrange in stacks likes the piles of coins called grana. The grana consisting of a membranous structure which are the stroma plus the matrix of the stroma. The membrane system is responsible for trapping the light energy also for the synthesis of ATP and NADPH. In stroma enzymatic reaction synthesis sugar, which forms starch.
two types of photosynthesis-
The former set of reactions. Since they are directly light driven are called light reactions. The latter is not directly light driven are dependent on the products of light reaction. Hence it is a dark reaction.
The light reaction in the photosynthesis process
The light reaction occurs in the stalk of thylakoids in the presence of light. It divides into two steps. At first, the chlorophyll pigment receives light energy and transfer this energy to other chlorophyll pigments and finally receives in the centre. It is P700 or Photosystem -I centre. By receiving the light energy the chlorophyll pigment becomes excited as well as a high energy electron release from this chlorophyll pigment get oxidised.
At last, by the carrier, it reached the cofactor. which is NADP+ and it becomes NADPH by receiving the electron. On the other hand to full fill the deprivation of electrons an electron comes from P680 or photosystem -ii. Because of this electron-proton as well as oxygen release from thylakoid by the process of photolysis. Due to the coagulation of protons in the lumen, a certain force creates in it. By utilizing this force a low energetic ADP becomes high energetic ATP and releases O2 at last.
Dark reaction in the photosynthesis process
Also, the other name of the dark reaction is the Calvin cycle. Firstly, it occurs in the second phase of photosynthesis and does not require light is called a dark reaction. The three main steps in the Calvin cycle are carbon fixation, reduction and regeneration of the starting molecule. This process occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast.
Next in this process with the help of a 5 carbon cofactor called RuBp and with the use of ATP and NADPH released in the light reaction by the fixation of CO2 with the help of an enzyme called Rubisco a 3 carbon carbohydrate is formed. This 3 carbon carbohydrate after regeneration gives 6carbon glucose which is the final product in the Calvin cycle.
3CO2 +6NADPH+ 5H2O+ 9ATP—– G3P + 9ADP+ 6 NADP+ + Pi
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